“Design can be art. Design can be aesthetics. Design is so simple, that's why it is so complicated.” 
In the 1940s, Paul Rand broke away from the conventional standards of typography and layout, and started incorporating Swiss style of design into his creations. He merged American visual culture into European avant-garde (modern art) design, integrating  Cubism, Constructivism, the  Bauhaus and De Stijl into his work.